农信机构:还要加强风控能力建设

来源:保险报

本报记者 樊融杰

农信机构是我国银行业重要组成部分。长期以来,农村中小银行一直是服务“三农”的主力军,其普惠型涉农贷款约占全国三分之二,涉农贷款约占全国三分之一。近年来,监管部门高度重视“三农”领域金融服务,对农信机构保持高压监管态势,引导其正确理解信贷指引的政策方向和信号,自上而下加强内部风控能力建设。

据不完全统计,2021年,农村商业银行、村镇银行、农村合作银行、农村信用合作社、农村资金互助社等农信机构被累计处罚824次,罚金超过3.71亿元(包含对相关责任人的处罚)。

其中,多家农信机构因“违反审慎经营规则”“股东与其关联方合并持股比例超监管规定”“贷款‘三查’制度不到位”“大额风险暴露超标”等原因受到监管处罚。

2021年农信机构被银保监系统处罚金额(不含个人罚金) 单位:万元

多张大额罚单涉及农商行股东

据统计,2021年,358家农商行(含分支机构)被罚,罚金约2.4亿元;4家农村合作银行(含分支机构)被罚,罚金320万元;166家村镇银行(含分支机构)合计被罚7798.74万元;1家省联社和103家农村信用社(含分支机构)合计被罚4917万元;农村资金互助社合计被罚42万元。

在农商行收到的罚单中,约90%罚单的处罚金额不高于100万元。

“严重违反审慎经营规则”成为多家农商行被罚的主要原因之一。

此外,因报送数据等日常工作错误频出,多家农商行被予以处罚。

《中国银行保险报》记者梳理49张处罚金额超过100万元的罚单信息发现,其中有8家农商行被处罚的原因牵涉“股东”,包括“股东与其关联方合并持股比例超监管规定”“未按照要求做好股东及关联交易管理”“对本行主要股东及其关联方合计授信余额超比例”“对本行主要股东及其关联方合计授信余额超比例”“部分股东以非自有资金入股,部分股权溢价资金会计核算不正确”等。

清大国际金融研究中心主任韩军对记者表示,有些小银行股东行为不规范与农商行相关腐败风险问题相关。要解决问题,就要继续加强监管,强化银行信息披露。

引导村镇银行落实“三查”制度

记者注意到,多家村镇银行因贷前、贷中以及贷后问题受罚。“贷款‘三查’不实”“贷款‘三查’制度执行不到位”屡次出现在村镇银行被处罚原因中。

“部分农村中小银行经营理念和发展战略出现偏差,盲目追求规模扩张,一度偏离主责主业,大量信贷资金流入产能过剩产业或房地产等领域。随着经济换挡升级持续推进,大量资金被套牢,风险集中暴露且化解十分困难。”今年4月,甘肃省联社党委书记、理事长王文永在第三届中国农金30人论坛福建会议上表示。

此外,多家村镇银行因内部管理问题被罚。部分合作社也因“违规分红”收到罚单。

多家农信机构因“大额风险暴露超标”被罚款。同时,“贷款分类不准确”也是多家农商行、村镇银行和合作社被处罚的原因。

王文永认为,管理基础先天不足和内控建设后天缺失,使得部分农村中小银行内控制度不健全、内控机制漏洞多、制度执行不到位、合规文化根基浅,同时受员工综合素质、风险意识等因素影响,不讲合规不守制度还一定程度存在,随着内控管理逐步强化,合规风险持续暴露。

韩军认为,必须加大反腐力度,强化信息披露,披露得越多越详细暴露的问题越多,就越容易早发现早处理。

韩军表示,农村金融机构要正确理解当前信贷指引的政策方向和信号,加强内部风控能力建设,严格落实贷前、贷中和贷后的账户和资金风险管理,形成严格制度。业务方面,要在稳住“三农”市场基础上,挖掘更多新业务潜力。通过可持续性好、前景广阔、收益丰厚的业务,可以逐渐摆脱对房地产市场的依赖性,从根本上规避违规风险。

农信机构积极整改

针对处罚,农信机构积极整改。通过对年报梳理,记者发现多家上市农商行在过去一年加强了在合规领域的建设。

2021年,上海农商行收到5张罚单,原因多涉及此前年份相关业务。

上海农商行在2021年年报中指出,围绕创建“合规管理示范行”发展目标,该行全面部署“内控合规管理建设年”活动,就内控合规治理架构、集团并表管理、内部控制评价监督动态体系等方面全面深入开展自查自纠和“屡查屡犯”专项整治行动。此外,该行还加强规章制度管理,开展规章制度清理工作,进一步明确规章制度起草修订的流程控制、监测评估、数据赋能等环节要求,并试行规章管理人员持证上岗机制。在完善制度建设方面,从横向产品维度为主向纵向职责等维度立体转变,夯实管理基础,提升合规风险管理的主动性与实效性。

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